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Petra (Arabic. البتراء read "al-Batra") is an ancient city located in the South — West of Jordan, the former capital of Idumea, and later of the Nabataean Kingdom. It is…

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Yellowstone national Park

Yellowstone national Park (Yellowstone national Park or simply Yellowstone, Yellowstone) is the oldest and one of the most famous national parks in the United States.

Yellowstone is located in three States-Wyoming (most of the Park, about 96% of the total area), Idaho and Montana. The area of the reserve is 8,983 km2 (this is more than the States of Delaware or Rhode island); the length of the Park from North to South is 101 kilometers, and from West to East – 87 kilometers. The highest point in Yellowstone is Eagle Peak (3,466 meters above sea level), and the lowest point is the Bank of Reese Creek (1,610 meters).

On the territory of the Park you can see rivers and lakes, valleys and mountain ranges, forests and meadows, canyons and waterfalls, numerous hot springs and geysers, one of the largest petrified forests in the world. The reserve is known, among other things, for its extraordinary diversity of flora and fauna.

Yellowstone national Park is located in the upper reaches of the river of the same name (from which it gets its name). In turn, the river was so named by native Americans (and later-and American pioneers) in honor of yellow rocks (Yellowstone – “yellow stone”), discovered in one of the canyons of the future reserve.

Yellowstone national Park attracts millions of tourists who have a convenient and developed infrastructure.
Yellowstone national Park
Yellowstone

The camp of the expedition of Ferdinand Hayden
Camp of the Ferdinand Hayden expedition, 1872
At least eleven thousand years ago, native American Indians lived on the territory of the present – day Yellowstone National Park. In 1805, members of the Lewis and Clark expedition, exploring the northwestern United States and passing through Montana, heard from local residents (ne-Perce, Shoshone, and crow Indians) about an unusual region located to the South. One of the members of this expedition, John Coulter, returned here in the winter of 1807-1808, becoming the first European to explore Yellowstone. He described the Western regions of Wyoming, including colorfully outlined the geysers and hot springs he saw. Coulter was not believed at the time, believing his stories to be fables and calling the places he described “Coulter’s hell”.

Similarly, over the next few decades, the stories of hunters who visited the Yellowstone area about lakes of boiling mud, steaming rivers, and petrified trees were treated with distrust. Among others, hunter and Explorer Jim Bridger visited Yellowstone in 1856. Just like Colter, Bridger, with his stories of fountains of hot water and steam spouting from the ground, was considered an inventor.

After the end of the civil war, the Yellowstone area was explored first by private individuals (in 1869), and then by a U.S. government-sponsored expedition (in 1871). The 1871 expedition was led by American geologist and naturalist Ferdinand Hayden. Hayden’s detailed report on Yellowstone, illustrated with photographs by William Jackson and paintings by Thomas Moran, convinced the U.S. Congress to pass legislation to create Yellowstone national Park, the first U.S. national Park. This law was signed by the eighteenth President of the United States, Ulysses Grant, on March 1, 1872.

Nathaniel Langford was appointed the first head of Yellowstone Park. At first, the government did not Finance the Park, or even pay the Director’s salary. The situation changed for the better only a few years later, after the report of Colonel William Ludlow, who continued to study the natural wonders of the new reserve in the second half of the seventies of the last century.

Interest in the Park and the number of visitors to it increased dramatically in the 1880s, when tourists were able to come to southern Montana (from where it was relatively easy to get to the Yellowstone area) via the newly built Northern Pacific railroad.

In the late eighties, the Indians who lived there were actually expelled from the Park. at the same time, a us army Fort was built here, which allowed to stop poaching and protect unique natural resources.

In the future, Yellowstone national Park has successfully developed, keeping the unique natural objects intact and at the same time creating new facilities for tourists.
Horace Albright feeds black bears
Yellowstone national Park Manager Horace Albright feeds black bears, 1922. Feeding “tame” bears was very popular with tourists, but was discontinued in the thirties after numerous accidents.

Yellowstone national Park ads
Yellowstone national Park advertising poster featuring a waterfall, circa 1938
Yellowstone national Park ads
Yellowstone national Park advertising poster featuring a geyser, circa 1938

The hot springs of Yellowstone
The hot springs of Yellowstone
Most of the Park is located on the Yellowstone plateau, which has an average elevation of about 2,400 meters above sea level, and the highest point of the plateau (but not the entire reserve) is mount Washburn, 3,122 meters. The plateau is surrounded by ranges of Rocky mountains: Gallatin to the Northwest, Birtut to the North, Absaroka to the East, Teton to the South, and Madison to the southwest and West.

On the territory of the Park is a huge (about fifty-five by seventy-two kilometers) Caldera (volcanic basin), formed by several catastrophic eruptions of the “Yellowstone SUPERVOLCANO”, the last of which occurred about six hundred and forty thousand years ago. Volcanic activity in the Yellowstone area continues to this day, with many weak earthquakes constantly occurring, and even new volcanic cones forming. It is the proximity of magma to the earth’s surface (the so-called “hot spot”) that causes the activity of numerous geysers, hot springs and mud volcanoes that have brought worldwide fame to Yellowstone national Park.

Yellowstone is home to half of the world’s hot springs. There are more than twelve hundred and fifty geysers, almost five hundred of which are active. The largest of them is the “Steamboat”, the highest geyser in the world (it throws out a column of steam and hot water more than ninety meters).

Unlike the Steamboat, which erupts at unpredictable intervals, the other Yellowstone geyser, the Old Faithful, throws from fourteen to thirty-two thousand liters of boiling water to a height of fifty-six meters at intervals of forty-five minutes to two hours. “Old servant” is the most famous and popular tourist geyser in Yellowstone.
The geyser Old faithful
The geyser “Old faithful” in Yellowstone National Park

Large multi-colored source
“Large multi-colored spring” in Yellowstone
The most famous of the hot springs of Yellowstone national Park is the “Big multi-colored spring” (it is also known as the “Big prismatic spring”, Grand Prismatic Spring-due to the fact that in its waters you can see almost all the colors of the rainbow obtained when sunlight passes through the prism – from red to blue).

The diameter of this unusual hot lake is about one hundred and ten meters, and the depth is about fifty meters. This is the largest hot spring in the United States and the third largest in the world. in a minute, more than two thousand liters of water are poured out of the “Big multi-colored spring”, the temperature of which is about 70°C.

The spring got its unusual appearance and corresponding name due to the multicolored colonies of bacteria that live in the extremely mineral-rich warm water around the spring. Depending on the time of year (and, accordingly, the ambient temperature), the spectrum of colonies shifts: in winter to green, and in summer to orange and red. The center of the lake is always blue – a color that is clean and almost sterile due to the constantly high temperature of the water.
Large prismatic source
Large prismatic source
Panorama of A large multi-colored source
Panorama of the ” Big multi-colored source”

Deposits of minerals brought to the surface by the waters of numerous springs form very beautiful and unusual terraces in Yellowstone, the most picturesque and famous of which are “mammoth Hot springs”.
Mammoth hot springs
Mammoth hot springs in Yellowstone National Park
Terraces of Mammoth hot springs
Terraces of Mammoth hot springs”

Trout lake in Yellowstone
Trout lake in Yellowstone National Park
Five percent of Yellowstone Park is occupied by rivers and lakes. The area of the largest Yellowstone lake in the reserve is more than three hundred and fifty square kilometers, the length of its coastline is about one hundred and eighty kilometers, and the depth exceeds 115 meters (this is the largest mountain lake in the United States).

The Yellowstone plateau is cut through by three deep gorges: Lewis canyon (formed by the river of the same name) in the South, and the Black and Grand canyons (on the Yellowstone river) in the North. The length of the Grand canyon (“Grand Canyon”) is thirty-nine kilometers, the depth is up to three hundred and seventy meters, the width in some places is more than a kilometer (of course, not as large as its” namesake “” Grand Canyon ” in Arizona, but nevertheless).

The Park has hundreds of waterfalls, the largest of which are located in the Grand canyon Upper (Upper Yellowstone Falls, 33 meters high) and Lower Yellowstone falls (Lower Yellowstone Falls). The height of the latter is 94 meters, which is higher than the famous Niagara falls in new York state.

The Yellowstone national Park has a continental divide. the rivers that flow here belong to the basins of both the Pacific (snake river) and the Atlantic (Yellowstone river) oceans.
The Grand Canyon Of The Yellowstone
The Grand Canyon Of The Yellowstone

Bears in Yellowstone
Bears in Yellowstone

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