The great pyramids of Giza
Unlike the pyramids that stand alone in the desert, the pharaohs of the Ancient Kingdom built three tombs on the Giza plateau and created a real cemetery city with tombs, temples, roads and sidewalks. They buried here not only pharaohs, their wives and servants, but also their closest relatives, as well as courtiers – in short, everyone who wanted to go after their master to the other world in the hope that he would give them life after death (all these people, except the servants, were of noble origin – the road to eternity was closed to the common people forever).What the great pyramids of Giza look like It is not without reason that the Egyptian pyramids in Giza are a real cemetery for aristocrats, where a considerable number of people were buried at one time. And the complex of pyramids in Giza includes: the pyramids of Cheops Khefren and Mikerin; temples leading to them, located at the beginning of the memorial road and in one of which Egyptologists discovered a triad-a unique ancient statue of the Pharaoh Mikerin and two goddesses accompanying him; satellite pyramids with deceased wives; four cemeteries where the closest relatives and courtiers were buried; the most ancient and mysterious monument of our world – the statue of the Sphinx. This necropolis is so famous that one of its tombs, the pyramid of Cheops, has long been considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the pyramids of Giza recently almost topped the list of Seven new wonders of the world. This did not happen only because the Egyptian authorities for some reasons decided not to participate in the competition-and withdrew the application. This did not prevent this unique complex from being awarded the title of honorary candidate: too many people wanted to see these tombs on the list. Mysteries of the pyramid of Cheops 83064.3621 the great pyramids of Giza on the West coast of the Nile, in Cairo, Egypt, on a map of the world you can find them at the following coordinates: 9° 58′ 32.72″ n, 31° 7′ 49.53″ V. D. they were Built on a rocky plateau near the quarry from which the builders had removed the blocks of limestone for the erection of buildings tombs. As for the exterior decoration, it was made of higher-quality white limestone, which was mined in the quarries of Tours, and granite, which was used in the construction of passages and burial rooms, was brought from Aswan, located at a distance of 800 km towards the equator. The Central tomb is the great pyramid of Cheops, the largest tomb in the world, whose height in the year of completion was 149 m (now it is 11 m lower). This tomb is interesting because it is the only pyramid where there are corridors leading up and down. Another mystery of the pyramid of Cheops is its ventilation channels leading from the burial rooms to the outside. This tomb is unique in that it has as many as three crypts, while two of them are clearly unfinished and work on them was stopped during construction. There is a suspicion that no burial room was used for its intended purpose: for some reason, the Pharaoh was not buried in this tomb. Interesting fact: the pyramid of Chephren is considered the most compact structure in our world-despite the fact that the total area of the tomb exceeds 16 thousand square meters. m, the amount of free space in it is less than 1/100 percent. The pyramid of Chephren was built half a century later than the Central tomb and is located less than two hundred meters from it. Interestingly, despite the fact that the pyramid of Chephren is three meters lower than Cheops, due to the greater angle of inclination and the shorter length of the base, it looks much higher. The fact that this tomb is located on the highest point of the plateau, the optical illusion is greatly enhanced. At the temple belonging to this pyramid, one of the most valuable finds of ancient Egypt was found – a statue of the Pharaoh Chephren, made of dark green diorite. It depicts a Pharaoh sitting proudly on a pedestal, behind which is the God Horus in the form of a Falcon. Inside, the pyramid of Chephren has an extremely simple layout – two corridors and two burial rooms carved into the rock, one of which was planned at the very bottom of the tomb in case the Pharaoh Chephren dies prematurely. The pyramid of Khefren has two entrances – the main one is at a height of 15 m, the second one is at the very bottom. The pyramid of Chephren has no more rooms or mines. The pyramid of Mikerin is located on the South side and looks a little out of the picture, because it is much smaller than the two neighboring tombs: its height is only 66 meters. The pyramid of Mikerin is interesting because there is a lack of unity of planning inside it (this gives reason to scientists to say that Mikerin was not the direct heir to the throne, so when he reigned, the tomb had to be rebuilt and enlarged). Despite this, the pyramid of Mikerin was considered the most beautiful of all the tombs: during the reign of this Pharaoh, the development of sculpture was at a very high level. Bright examples of this time are considered to be the sculptures of the triad, an example of which is the statue of the Pharaoh Mikerin surrounded by two goddesses, depicted on the temple of the Pharaoh, located near the pyramid. The pyramid of Mikerin is also interesting in that it was decided to use two finishing materials at once for its facing: at the bottom – slabs of Aswan granite, at the top-of white limestone. Mykerin’s pyramid managed to keep its decoration for several millennia, until the beginning of the XVI century, when the Mamelukes reached it and removed the lining. The tomb that Mikerin built belongs to two periods at once: it completes the era when tombs of huge size were built and forms a new standard-since that time, the height of the tombs is at the same level and deviations from the norm do not exceed twenty meters. The great Sphinx Guards the pyramids of Giza, the enormous Sphinx, which is located on the East side of the pyramid of Chephren. At the moment, this sculpture of a half-lion, half-man, whose height is 20 meters, is considered the oldest monument of mankind – it is interesting that the statue was carved from a calcareous rock. Unlike the pyramids, which the Egyptians tended, the Sphinx was paid much less attention, so it periodically drifted with sand to such an extent that it disappeared from the face of the earth for many centuries – until the ruler came to power, who caught himself and ordered the monument to be dug up. These works were so heavy that the Sphinx was only partially freed from the sand for a long time – and it was only fully excavated in the twenties of the last century. Despite the fact that it is still unknown when the pyramids of Giza were built, it is believed that they were built during the Ancient Kingdom (XXVI-XXIII centuries BC), during the reign of representatives of the IV-V dynasties. Given the age of these structures, Egyptologists can not help but be surprised by the fact that ancient people could build structures of this type with such mathematical and geometric accuracy. Many scientists are struggling with this solution, the secrets of the pyramids have not yet been solved. Many are surprised by the triangular shape of the tombs – despite the fact that it is not clear why the ancient Egyptians settled on this design, there are certainly assumptions. For example, according to one version, in this way they tried to reproduce the shape of the mountains on which the gods lived, on the other – the pyramids were perceived by them as stairs by which the spirit of the ruler can climb to heaven. As for the most famous Egyptian tombs, if you look closely at the map on which they are located, you will notice that the three main pyramids of Giza are located inside a rectangle that is formed when the centers of two identical circles are located on each other’s circles. The researchers noticed that the pyramids of Cheops Chephren and Mikerin are located on a line that clearly corresponds to the Fibonacci spiral. Stunning 7 wonders of the world of the ancient world 83064.785 Another interesting fact that could not pass by scientists, is that all the buildings on the Giza plateau as the tombs of the pharaohs, and other tombs, are in perfect harmony with each other (first of all, this applies to the height, angles of inclination, their relative location). Interestingly, the secrets of the pyramids of Giza are particularly intriguing for mathematicians and astrologers who like to think about them with a ruler and a compass in their hands. For example, among the interesting facts they found is that if you multiply the height of the Cheops pyramid by a million, you get the distance from the Earth to the Sun. They did not miss the fact that the sum of the faces of one pyramid is equal to the square of its height. They also made simpler calculations: for example, they calculated that a three-meter wall built from the blocks of the three pyramids of Giza could cover the entire territory of France.
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